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My tongue became swollen 10 months ago and my RBC count is 3.8, has been for years. I was given one B12 injection a week for 4 weeks in January then one a month since January. My tongue is still swollen and in fact tingles from time to time. I also take 6 to 8 doses of transdermal B12 daily. Am finding it impossible to take folic acid as I lack enough stomach acid. Nothing has changed. Totally fed up, have already changed my doctor and can’t do it again.


I didn’t have a swollen tongue, but I did have really red Geographic Tongue, which still comes and goes, but not so often, and not so bad. It used to go up to the roof of my mouth, and onto my tonsils.

Anyway, the b12 and the b complex, including folic acid did not help it that much. What helped was the D3 and the Magnesium.

Can’t you get a shot , a patch, or an oil with folic acid. How about taking it with orange juice, or Apple Cider Vinegar with the mother still in it mixed with water and unpasteurized honey? I haven’t been taking Bragg’s ACV for awhile because, after a month or so, uch, but it really makes me feel good.

I believe that you have to get the right combination of things in order for your body to work well. Many people tout honey and other bee products. Try adding some of them. I don’t remember the name of the Canadian company itself, but I subscribe to newsletter called “Bee Pollen Buzz”. If you Google it, it should pop up. Try getting something from there.

For you, and everybody, non-vitamin things that I think are helpful:

Soups and stews (even if you are vegan, use veggies) Unfiltered Apple Cider Vinegar with the mother still in it Cod Liver Oil — not just fish or Krill oil Exercise — even if you walk for 3 minutes a day, that’s somthin more than nothin Stretching — it helps unclog the Lymph system Unfiltered and unpasturized bee products If you are not vegan, Marrow — I am still up in the air about organ meats

I read a lot online and listen (tv) a lot, and know what works for me, and I filter out the phonies, so I am confident that the above can really help.

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About 10yrs. ago I started having numbness and tingling in my feet, tiredness, mouth ulcers. I went to so many doctors and had numerous MRI’s, lumbar puncture and bloodwork done. Two yrs, went by until a doctor found out about my situation and asked me to make an appt. With doing more bloodwork and this time testing my B-12, I have a B12 deficiency. My level was severely low at 41. He started me on a regimen of cynocobalamin shots and my level went up over the next months. Later, I started using a B12 nasal spray instead of shots. Well as my levels was very good, I still had numbness and tingling and my gait is terrible. Then I started using Transdermoil (methycobalamin) and although I have nerve damage, theres a slow process of nerve regereration happening. It may take a long time for my nerves to regenerate fully but I feel better using methylcobalamin oil rather than cynocobalamin. Doctors here just are not familiar with the knowledge of B12 deficiency and thats why I started doing research on B12 on the internet.


tom says

Issue Section:

Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection through heterosexual intercourse accounts for the majority of infections worldwide, the mechanism of viral transmission across the epithelium of the reproductive tract is poorly understood. The correlation between the presence of genital ulcerative diseases and HIV infection suggests that HIV may enter the body through lesions [ 1 , 2 ]. On the other hand, it has been shown that Rhesus macaques can be infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) placed on the apparently intact cervix, vagina [ 3–5 ], or penile urethra [ 4 , 5 ]. These studies suggest that lesions are not required for infection and that the virus is capable of crossing the epithelial barrier by an undefined mechanism

The epithelium separates the host from its environment and protects it from pathogens. Both the ectocervix and vagina of the female genital tract consist of stratified squamous epithelium; the endocervix is characterized by a simple columnar epithelium. All are considered potential sites for HIV-1 infection. A number of in vitro studies have shown that human genital epithelial cells can be infected through contact with infected monocytes [ 6 , 7 ] but are refractory to cell-free HIV-1 infection, presumably because of the lack of cell-surface CD4 cells. Previous studies have reported that ME-180, a cervix-derived, CD4-negative epithelial line, could be infected by contact with HIV-1–infected T cells [ 7 , 8 ]. Subsequently, studies have demonstrated that epithelial cells can be productively infected and that HIV-infected primary monocytes can also mediate infection [ 9–11 ]. However, epithelial cells, usually lacking surface CD4 cells, were generally difficult to infect by cell-free viruses in vitro, and the amount of virus detected after infection was very low [ 12 ]

It is therefore controversial whether genital epithelial cells can be productively infected by cell-free virus. In vivo studies have failed to provide consistent evidence of HIV-1 infection of genital mucosal epithelia. Some investigators have reported that no HIV-1 proteins or viral RNA were detected in the epithelial lining of the cervix or vagina [ 5 , 13 ], whereas others [ 14 ] have reported that Vibratome sections of living tissue and primary cell cultures from the human oviduct, uterus, cervix, and vagina could be infected by primary isolates of HIV-1

We report here that HIV-1 failed to infect a genital epithelial cell line derived from human cervical tissue. Instead, the cells sequestered large amounts of virus, and the virus remained infectious for a prolonged period. The sequestered virus could be efficiently transmitted to susceptible target cells through cell-cell contact. The observations implicate the possible roles of genital epithelial cells during sexual transmission of HIV in vivo and suggest that Ect1 cells can be a useful in in vitro models, for understanding the sexual transmission of HIV

In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the deficiency of a ubiquitous protein, SMN, may cause a common biochemical defect in all cell types, but which might specifically affect a neuron-specific process, leading to selective degeneration of motor neurons in SMA. We examined the molecular defects caused by (i) acute SMN-deficiency (knockdown) in dividing normal (non-SMA) cells and (ii) chronic SMN-deficiency (SMA) in SMA patient dividing cells (primary fibroblast) and terminally differentiated cells (spinal cord neurons) derived from SMA mice. In addition, we have examined spinal cord tissues from SMA mice and severe SMA type I patients. We show that SMN-deficiency causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways. We uncover that Senataxin (SETX),which is required for resolving RNA–DNA hybrids (R-loops), colocalize with SMN in sub-nuclear bodies and acute (knockdown) and chronic (SMA) SMN-deficiencies cause down-regulation of SETX and accumulation of R-loops. In normal (non-SMA) dividing cells, SMN-deficiency results in activation of DNA repair mechanisms, homologous recombination (HR) that is dependent on the activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases and breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) ( 16 ), and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that requires DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activity ( 17 ). We found that chronic low levels of SMN also cause deficiency of DNA-PKcs in dividing SMA patient cells and non-dividing SMA neurons. In SMA patient dividing cells, HR (ATM/BRCA1) is activated for DSB repair, but NHEJ is impaired due to the lack of DNA-PKcs activity. However, DSB repair by HR enables SMA patient cells to divide and proliferate. Analysis of spinal cord neurons and spinal cord tissues from SMA mice and patients show marked reduction in SETX and DNA-PKcs and activation of DNA damage pathway. Notably, defects identified in SMN-deficient cells, SETX-deficiency, DNA-PKcs-deficiency, R-loops and DNA damage accumulation were rescued by restoring SMN levels in SMA patient cells and spinal cord neurons. Furthermore, SETX overexpression reduces R-loops and DNA damage accumulation, and rescues degeneration of SMA mice spinal cord neurons. Because neurons predominantly use NHEJ for DSBs repair ( 18 ), our data support a model in which combined deficiency of SETX and DNA-PKcs-deficiency leads to elevated levels of R-loops and DSB formation, and defects in NHEJ-mediated DSBs repair result in DNA damage accumulation, which may contribute to genomic instability and predominant degeneration of motor neurons in SMA.

The wild-type FVB/NJ and SMA carrier mice on FVB background [ Smn −/+ ; SMN2 +/+ ; SMNΔ7 +/+ ] ( 19 ), purchased from the Jackson Laboratory, were bred to generate non-SMA (normal) [ Smn +/+ ; SMN2 +/+ ; SMNΔ7 +/+ ] and SMA [ Smn −/− ; SMN2 +/+ ; SMNΔ7 +/+ ] littermates. Mice (7-day-old) were euthanized to collect spinal cord tissues for culturing motor neuron immunofluorescence (IF) analysis and immunoblot (IB) analysis with average postmortem interval <30 min. All experiments and procedures were approved and performed according to the guidelines and policies set by the Institutional Biosafety Committee. All animals were housed in a facility accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC). All animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso (TTUHSC EP). Animals were treated humanely and euthanasia was performed using methods approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).

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